Table of contents:
- history of the holiday
- Scientific explanation for a terrible legend
- Passover traditions
- When they celebrate
Video: What date is the Jewish Passover in 2021
Passover, or Jewish Passover, is one of the most ancient and most revered by the followers of Judaism. What date in 2021 will Passover be celebrated, when and how the Jewish Passover is celebrated in Russia - find out further.
history of the holiday
The exodus of the Jews from Egypt, a central event in biblical history, is usually dated between the 15th and 13th centuries BC. The Lord, wishing to save the Jews from 400 years of slavery, sent calamities to the country, which in the Pentateuch are called "The Ten Plagues of Egypt":
- The water turned to blood.
- Invasion of frogs and toads.
- Countless clouds of midges.
- Hordes of dog flies (gadflies).
- Livestock death (pestilence).
- The bodies of the people were covered with ulcers and abscesses.
- Fiery hail.
- Locust breeding.
- Impenetrable darkness.
On the eve of the most terrible, 10th execution, the Lord, according to the Old Testament, appeared to the Prophet Moses from the middle of a flaming thorn bush (burning bush) and ordered every Jewish family to slaughter a lamb. With the blood of the slain lamb, God told all the Israelites to anoint the doorposts and crossbars of the doors of the house.
On the night of the 14th day of Nisan, the angel of death descended into Egypt, who defeated the firstborn boys in every family whose house was not marked with blood. The heir to the throne was also killed by him. The death of his son crushed the heart of Pharaoh, and he allowed the Jews to go to Canaan - the Promised Land.
From that moment on, the Jewish people around the world annually celebrate Passover - the holiday of the Exodus from Egyptian slavery, unanimously recognizing it as their most important holiday.
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Scientific explanation for a terrible legend
For many centuries this chilling biblical parable was considered a terrible legend. However, in 2010, a group of German scientists from Heidelberg University was able to prove that these events actually happened in ancient times.
So, according to historians, the Bible just perfectly describes the sequence of catastrophes. This information is confirmed by the ancient Egyptian manuscripts.
As it turned out, the legends about the punishments that befell Egypt were associated with two large, coinciding in time natural disasters that occurred in the 13th century BC in the ancient city of Pi-Ramses (the capital of Egypt about three thousand years ago), near the eastern delta Nile.
According to biologists, we are talking about global climate change. The increase in the average annual temperature, which caused the Nile to become shallow, turned it from a turbulent river into a shallow muddy stream, in which all the fish died out. In extreme conditions, tadpoles began to multiply intensively in adult frogs, which left the fetid river on land.
However, the amphibians could not find food, so they began to die, which provoked the dominance of insects. This, in turn, led to the rapid spread of infectious diseases, due to which a massive death of livestock began, and the death rate of people increased sharply.
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In addition, as a result of the next eruption of the Tera volcano on the island of Santorini in the Mediterranean Sea (fiery hail and "Egyptian darkness"), a huge amount of ash was formed, which provoked increased humidity and led to mass reproduction of locusts.
As for the death of children, the researchers explain such selectivity of victims by the fact that the first-born boys, as heirs, were given the first portion of food. The grain, presumably, could be affected by poisonous microorganisms or mold spores after all natural disasters. The Jews, who lived separately, had their own food supplies, and this did not affect them.
Before the holiday, Jewish families clean the house, scald and foil metal surfaces, clean kitchen utensils.Many traditions are also associated with the celebration.
In particular, in all territories belonging to a Jew, chametz (leavened products) are collected and burned on the last morning before Passover (or sold to a non-Jew).
On these holidays, Jews are forbidden not only to eat foods prepared with the use of sourdough or by fermentation, but also to keep them at home. You can only eat matzo - thin unleavened cakes made from unsuccessful dough (water and flour).
Passover matzah is baked in memory of the fact that the Jews leaving Egypt in a hurry took bread from dough that did not have time to come. The culminating moment of Passover is the evening meal of seder ("order"), which is held in Israel on the first evening of the holiday, but in other countries - the first two evenings.
The festive dinner is regulated by many compulsory elements, such as the use of matzah, the telling of biblical stories about the liberation of the Jewish people, drinking red wine (four glasses) and the use of bitter green maror (horseradish).
Traditional dishes on the festive table:
- gefilte fish;
- tsimes - a spicy carrot with meat and matzo jackdaws;
- kugel - matzo casserole and others.
Jews, congratulating each other on their main holiday, say: "Hag Passover Sameach", which means "Happy Passover!"
It is noteworthy that this date has several other names:
- Hag ha-Matsot is a holiday in honor of matzah (unleavened bread).
- Hag ha-Herut is a holiday of liberation and freedom.
- Hag ha-Aviv - the triumph of spring.
When they celebrate
The celebration of Pesach (translated from Hebrew means "pass by", "bypass", "bypass") begins on the 14th day of the spring month of Nisan. The date usually falls in March-April in the Gregorian calendar.
In Israel, the celebration lasts seven days, but the weekend is not all days, but only the first and last. In Russia and in other countries where there are Jewish diasporas, they celebrate eight days.
What date is Passover in 2021 - in 2021, the Jewish Passover will begin on March 27 with sunset, and the end of the holiday will take place on April 4.
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